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Introduction To Data Structures

by Nathan Zachary

What Is Data:

Data is a collection of various numbers, symbols and letters to represent information.

What Is Data Structure:

A data structure is a set of data elements that provide the easiest way to store and perform various operations on a computer’s data. A data structure is a special way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used effectively. The idea is to reduce the space and time complexities of the various functions.

Choosing a good data structure makes it possible to perform a variety of important tasks effectively. An efficient data structure also uses minimum memory space and execution time to process the structure.

A data structure also defines an instance of the ADT. ADT stands for Abstract Data Type. It is formally defined as a triplet. [d, f, a]

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 Array: An array is a collection of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. The idea is to store multiple objects of the same type at once. This makes it easy to calculate the position of each element by simply adding an offset to the base value, that is, the memory location of the first element of the array (usually denoted by the name of the array).

 Linked Lists: Like arrays, linked lists are a linear data structure. Unlike arrays, linked list elements are not stored in a contiguous location; Elements are added using pointers.

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Linked List

Stack: Stack is a linear data structure that follows a particular order in which operations are performed. The order can be LIFO (Last In First Out) or FILO (First In Last Out). In a stack, all insertions and deletions are allowed at only one end of the list.

Queue: Like a stack, a queue is a linear structure that follows a particular order in which operations are performed. The order is first in first out (FIFO). In the queue, items are inserted at one end and removed from the other end. A good example of a queue is any queue of consumers for a resource where the first incoming consumer is served first. The difference between a stack and a queue is in the removal. We remove the most recently added item in the stack; In a queue, we remove the least recently added item.

Enqueue: Adds an item to the queue. If the queue is full, it is called an overflow condition.

Dequeue: Removes an item from the queue. Objects are popped in the same order in which they are pushed. If the queue is empty, it is called an underflow condition.

Front: Receives the front item from the queue.

Rear: Get the last item from the queue.

 Binary Trees:Unlike arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues, which are linear data structures, trees are hierarchical data structures. A binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, called the left child and the right child. It is mainly implemented using links.

A binary tree is represented by a pointer to the topmost node in the tree. If the tree is empty, the root value is NULL. A binary tree node consists of the following parts.

Max-Heap: The key at the root node in the Max-Heap must be the greatest of all its children. The same property must be recursively true for all sub-trees in that binary tree.

Min-Heap: The key on the root node in the min-heap must be the minimum among all its children. The same property must be recursively true for all sub-trees in that binary tree.

 Hashing Data Structure: Hashing is a key data structure designed to use a special function called hash function which is used to map a given value with a particular key for faster access to the elements . The efficiency of the mapping depends on the efficiency of the hash function used.

Suppose the hash function H(x) maps the value x at index x%10 in an array. For example, if the list of values ​​is [11, 12, 13, 14, 15] it will be stored in the array or hash table at positions {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} respectively.

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