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# Introduction To Data Structures

## What Is Data:

Data is a collection of various numbers, symbols and letters to represent information.

## What Is Data Structure:

A data structure is a set of data elements that provide the easiest way to store and perform various operations on a computer’s data. A data structure is a special way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used effectively. The idea is to reduce the space and time complexities of the various functions.

Choosing a good data structure makes it possible to perform a variety of important tasks effectively. An efficient data structure also uses minimum memory space and execution time to process the structure.

A data structure also defines an instance of the ADT. ADT stands for Abstract Data Type. It is formally defined as a triplet. [d, f, a]

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## Array: An array is a collection of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. The idea is to store multiple objects of the same type at once. This makes it easy to calculate the position of each element by simply adding an offset to the base value, that is, the memory location of the first element of the array (usually denoted by the name of the array).

Linked Lists: Like arrays, linked lists are a linear data structure. Unlike arrays, linked list elements are not stored in a contiguous location; Elements are added using pointers.

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## Binary Trees:Unlike arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues, which are linear data structures, trees are hierarchical data structures. A binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, called the left child and the right child. It is mainly implemented using links.

A binary tree is represented by a pointer to the topmost node in the tree. If the tree is empty, the root value is NULL. A binary tree node consists of the following parts.

## Hashing Data Structure: Hashing is a key data structure designed to use a special function called hash function which is used to map a given value with a particular key for faster access to the elements . The efficiency of the mapping depends on the efficiency of the hash function used.

Suppose the hash function H(x) maps the value x at index x%10 in an array. For example, if the list of values ​​is [11, 12, 13, 14, 15] it will be stored in the array or hash table at positions {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} respectively.