Cast-in-situ concrete is regarded as a substitution for precast concrete. Precast concrete, unlike cast-in-situ concrete, is created in a factory or a construction site. After its construction, it is transported to the ultimate location and fixed firmly for construction purposes. Therefore, it can be said that precast concrete buildings are made of individual sections. The individual sections are joined or linked together as opposed to monolithic or continuous cast-in-situ construction.
Benefits of Precast construction in civil engineering
Precast construction is a great option for constructing an extensive range of similar components. For example, in the case of the construction of affordable housing projects, the technique can be the most fruitful in making floor slabs and wall slabs and fixing them later.
The following are the other advantages of precast construction
- Ground construction instead of construction on a height is privileged in precast construction.
- The entire construction process is performed in a structure having a controlled climate. Therefore, there is no issue like dust, rain, heat, or cold that can cause hindrances to the construction work.
- Specialised frameworks are available for making the same components repetitively.
- Special equipment is used for construction purposes
- The concrete curing process is done in a temperature-controlled environment.
Disadvantages of Precast construction
Here are some of the disadvantages of precast construction in civil engineering.
- Unlike cast-in-situ construction, each piece in precast construction is made separately. Hence, the structural frame or system in this construction isn’t monolithic and there are chances of structural discontinuity.
- As there is a usage of different components in this construction, special sealants are essential to be used in it for waterproofing purposes.
- The precasts are massive and the authority must use separate cranes to lift them on the different floors of the building. Therefore, it is a time-consuming process and can cause a delay in the completion of the project.
Usage of precasting for construction purposes
Precasting for construction purposes is effective to get strength, affordability, and durability in the project. The usage of precasting for construction purposes includes:
- Constructing different building parts like floor slabs, beams, columns, and foundations
- For making building walls or cladding panels
- For making infrastructure projects components
- For making precast pre-stressed building materials
- For making sale products like railway sleepers, water pipes, septic tanks, precast water tanks, etc.
- For constructing unusual-shaped components and materials
Site precasting and factory precasting
Precasting for construction purposes is available at the casting yard, factory, or near the project site. Even if the factory work provides high quality, precasting should be chosen according to the transportation costs involved in it. In the case of infrastructure projects, the precasting process is done at the casting yard on any open land. More importantly, a major highway in the case of precasting has the highest preference for smooth transport purposes.
Precast Concrete element connection procedure
There are two ways for connecting concrete elements. These are as follows
- At the time of casting, the steel connectors are incorporated into the concrete and the components are fastened together. But the entire task needs to be completed with considerable perseverance.
- The components are grouted for connecting. With this technique, the precast concrete member having steel loops of steel is threaded to set them properly. Fresh concrete surrounds the designated area to provide strength to the construction.
Precast construction is thus one of the fundamental building methods offered in the AutoCAD Online Course For Civil Engineering. All sorts of constructions may benefit from the construction technique, which gives the system more sturdiness and integrity.