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How is Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosed in Children and Adults?

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How is Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosed in Children and Adults?

Diabetes is a serious health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It’s caused by an inability to regulate blood sugar levels, which can be dangerous if left untreated. Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a rarer form of diabetes that is characterised by the kidneys not being able to absorb enough fluids from the body, causing extreme thirst and frequent urination. While knowledge of this condition is still evolving, it’s essential for those with or at risk for developing DI to understand normal blood sugar levels and what signs to look for to prevent further complications.

Read on to learn more about the normal range of blood sugar levels, diabetes insipidus, its symptoms, causes, treatments, and risk factors. 

What is a Normal Blood Sugar Level?

A normal blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). However, some people may have a blood sugar level higher than this, but they do not have diabetes. This is because their bodies can compensate for the high blood sugar by making more insulin or becoming more resistant to insulin. People with diabetes insipidus, on the other hand, do not make enough insulin, or their bodies are unable to use it effectively. As a result, their blood sugar levels can turn very high and can lead to serious health complications.

Normal blood sugar levels chart for children (below 6 years of age):

PeriodNormal Blood Sugar LevelDiabetic Blood Sugar Level
Fasting80-180 mg/dlAround 150-200 mg/dl
Before Meals100-180 mg/dl120-200 mg/dl
After Meals (2 hours gap)180 mg/dl180 mg/dl
Bedtime110-200 mg/dl100-200 mg/dl

Normal blood sugar levels chart for adolescents:

PeriodNormal Blood Sugar LevelDiabetic Blood Sugar Level
Fasting70-1500 mg/dlAround 150-180 mg/dl
Before Meals90-130 mg/dl120-160 mg/dl
After Meals (2 hours gap)140 mg/dl180 mg/dl
Bedtime90-150 mg/dl100-150 mg/dl

Normal blood sugar levels chart for adults:

PeriodNormal Blood Sugar LevelDiabetic Blood Sugar Level
FastingLess than 100 mg/dlAround 100-150 mg/dl
Before Meals70-130 mg/dl90-160 mg/dl
After Meals (2 hours gap)Less than 180 mg/dl150 mg/dl
Bedtime100-140 mg/dl100-150 mg/dl



What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes Insipidus is a rare condition that occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough of the hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin helps the body regulate water levels in the blood. Without enough vasopressin, the body can’t retain water, leading to dehydration and other serious health problems.

There are two types of diabetes insipidus: central and nephrogenic. Central Diabetes Insipidus occurs when there’s a problem with the pituitary gland located at the brain’s base. A tumour, injury, or infection usually causes this type of Diabetes Insipidus. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, on the other hand, occurs when there’s a problem with the kidneys. Certain medications, kidney disease, or genetic disorders can cause this type of Diabetes Insipidus.

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, and tiredness. If left untreated, Diabetes Insipidus can lead to serious complications such as seizures, coma, and death. Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus involves taking vasopressin replacement therapy.

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus

There are a few different symptoms of diabetes insipidus, but the most common one is excessive thirst. This happens because your body isn’t able to regulate its water levels properly, so you end up feeling thirsty all the time. Other symptoms include the following:

  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision

If you have any of these symptoms, you must see a doctor immediately. Diabetes insipidus is a severe condition that can lead to dehydration if not treated properly.

Test for Diabetes Insipidus

There is no definitive test for either type of Diabetes Insipidus. A variety of tests may be used to diagnose the condition, including:

  • A urine-specific gravity test measures the ratio of solids to liquids in urine. A low urine specific gravity indicates that the kidneys are not concentrating urine properly.
  • A water deprivation test involves withholding bodily fluids for several hours while monitoring urine output and weight loss. A decrease in urine output or an increase in weight loss indicates that the body is not conserving water properly.
  • A serum osmolality test measures the overall concentration of all solutes in blood plasma. A high serum osmolality suggests that the body cannot dilute its plasma properly.
  • A 24-hour urinary volume measurement test assesses how much urine your body produces in a day. An increase in urinary volume indicates that the body is losing too much water.

Risk Factors and Treatments for Diabetes Insipidus

Risk factors for Central Diabetes Insipidus include head trauma, surgery, infections, tumours, and certain medications. Treatments for central Diabetes Insipidus include replacement therapy with synthetic vasopressin or desmopressin and management of underlying conditions.

Risk factors for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus include certain genetic disorders, chronic kidney disease, and the use of certain medications. Treatments for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include avoiding dehydration by drinking plenty of fluids and taking thiazide diuretics. In some cases, treatment with lithium may be effective.

In Summary

Diabetes Insipidus is a rare yet dangerous condition that does not have a cure. However, it can be contained and managed by adopting healthier lifestyle choices. Visit Sugar.Fit to learn more about this rare condition and how to maintain your well-being.

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