by Nathan Zachary

The safety of you, your passengers, your cargo, and other road users depend on 23-28 square inches (15,000-18,000 square millimetres) of the area that comes in contact with the road surface at any one time. It doesn’t matter when you are driving or what kind of road conditions you are facing. The figure given above is approximate of how much tyre surface has direct contact with the road at any given time. The area roughly equals an average shoe pair. So, if you think about it, the four patches of rubber car tyres fitted near me have to carry an immense responsibility making sure that the car and its occupants are safe at all times. 

UK Law Regarding Tyre Tread Depth

According to UK law, the central three-quarters of tyre tread of vans, cars, and LCVs should be at least 1.6mm. This measurement should be maintained around the whole 195 65 r15 tyres circumference. 

Various scientific methods are applied when designing tyre treads to ensure optimum grip on different road types. Based on the vehicle type and the conditions it might face, tyre tread patterns come in six types. 


This tread pattern has lesser rolling resistance, thereby reducing fuel costs. Plus, it produces lower heat than other tread patterns and is ideal for sustained, fast driving.


The tread pattern is right-angled to the travel direction – such a design offers improved traction to tyres. Moreover, it ensures increased power during braking and driving. 

Rib-Lug Shaped 

This design combines the advantages of both rib and lug-shaped tread. It is perfect when you need adequate traction on the paved and unpaved road surface. 

Block shaped

In this case, numerous clusters of blocks are individually cut into the tyre’s cross-section. They are again joined by various unbroken lines present along the tyre circumference. Such a design provides good traction on icy or wet roads. As the individual tread blocks are small in size, the tread pattern as a whole gets worn out rapidly.

Asymmetric tread, with different patterns on each side

Tyres with this kind of tread pattern offer higher cornering stability. Plus, there is increased road contact at any point in time, and thus, is best for motorsport use. 

Directional Tread

Lateral grooves are present on both sides of the tread area’s centre. Tyres that come with this tread pattern can easily dispose of water from under them and offers enhanced Braking performance. So, it is ideal for wet weather. 

Construction of a tyre

A tyre is made up of rubber, obviously, but other materials make up the different components of a tyre. They are given below in detail. 

  • Instead of the old inner tube, an inner liner made from air-tight rubber is utilised in maximum modern cars. 
  • The inward and outward-facing tyre parts facing sideways is called a sidewall. The sidewalls maintain the rigidity of a tyre and can expand and compress as per the road terrain. Thus, it absorbs road bumps and enhances the riding experience of the passengers. 
  • The apex minimises the distortion of rubber beads present in the tyre. The rubber beads lessen the impact on the tyre. 
  • The tread is the only tyre part that makes direct contact with the road. It is required to provide the stability and grip needed while cornering. Along with this, it has to work against the abrasive forces with the road, prevent cut damage and excessive impact, and withstand high temperatures generated due to friction between the road and the tyre. 
  • Beading is the bonding that attaches the wheel rim and the tyre. It comprises a wire with a rubber core connected to the wheel’s outer edge. 
  • Normally, a groove runs within the tread in a single line. It keeps the tyre and vehicle stable, enhancing acceleration ability and braking safety.
  • There is a fabric or steel wire belt inside the tyre’s downward-facing wall. It ensures that maximum tread area comes in contact with the surface at any given point. 
  • The section between the tread’s edge and the sidewall’s upper part is known as the shoulder. It has a crucial role in heat dissipation created from the contact between the road and the tyre. 
  • The carcass is an inner mesh of cord that supports the tyre’s weight and scatter the impact all across the tyre. Carcass flexes and contracts continuously, so it has to be made from a material that can outlast rigorous use every day. 
  • Chafer is the inner tyre part preventing the wire or steel cord from coming into contact with the rim of the wheel.  Other Tyre Characteristics

The groove is the sunken part of the tread. The groove amount and pattern have a significant effect on the quality of a tyre,  amount of road noise generated, and tread wear rate. 

The tread pattern of a tyre has fine grooves, known as sipes. They play an important role in ensuring better braking ability and driving performance, providing stability to the load supported by the tyres, and improving riding comfort. 

How Does Air Influence The Working Of A Tyre?

The tyre pressure makes sure that all the components of a tyre do their job properly. You need to make sure that the air pressure is maintained at such a level that the tyre structure is not only strong but also flexible. Tyre flexibility is responsible for a smoother and comfier ride over uneven surfaces. 

Moreover, if the pressure is too much, the lifts the tyre a bit from the road surface, lessening the grip. Too little air pressure will cause the centre of the tyres to sag, resulting in inadequate grip. 

There are a lot of car tyres online available in the market. If you want to purchase expensive tyres, they are available too. Just keep in mind what kind of climatic conditions and road type you encounter while driving.

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